School, exams and… BSD!

Alright, January is already almost over, so there’s not much use in wishing my readers a happy new year, right? I wanted to have this month’s blog post out much earlier and in fact wanted to write about a completely different topic. But after January 27th it was pretty obvious for me what I’d have to write about – On that day I passed my final exam and now I’m a Computer Science Expert by profession. Time to take a look back at the apprenticeship and the status of *nix in German IT training today.

Spoiler: It’s Microsoft, Microsoft and again Microsoft. Only then there’s one drop of Linux in the ocean. I had left the (overly colorful) world of Windows in 2008. When I started the apprenticeship I was determined not to eat humble pie and come crawling back to that. While it was at times a rather tough fight, it was possible to do. And I’m documenting it here because I want to encourage other people to also take this path. The more people take the challenge the easier it will become for everyone. Besides: It is absolutely necessary to blaze the trail for better technology to actually arrive in mainstream business. This is of great importance if we do not want to totally fall behind.


I didn’t take the straight way into IT. While I had been hooked with computers since I was a little child, I also found that I had a passion to explain things to others. I gave private lessons after school for many years and after passing the Abitur (think of the British A levels) I chose to go to the university to become a teacher.

It took me a very long time of struggle to accept that I could not actually do that for a living. I am in fundamental opposition to how the German school system is being ruined and I could not spend all my work life faithfully serving an employer that I have not even the least bit of respect for.

The situation is as follows: We once had a school system in Germany that aimed at educating young people to be fit for whatever their life holds. The result was people who could stand on their own feet. Today the opposite is true: A lot of people who leave school have no idea how to find their way in life. Playing computer games is the only thing that a lot of young men (and an increasing number of women) actually do. They have not developed any character, they have no passion for anything (and thus no goals in life) and they often haven’t learned no empathy at all (and thus keep hurting other people – not even because of bad will but because of total ignorance).

At the same time things taught in school aim purely at making people available as workmen as soon as possible. Sounds contradictory? Sure thing. At the university I enjoyed the benefits of the old system where there was relatively large academic freedom and you were encouraged to take your time to learn things properly, to do some research if you hit topics of interest to you and to take courses from other faculties, etc. And this is pure insanity: All that is largely gone. New students are forced to hasten through their studies thanks to tight requirements (which semester to take which course in – very schoolish, no freedom at all)… In the name of “comparability” we did away with our own academic degrees only to adopt the inferior “master” (as well as the even more inferior “bachelor”).

Secondary schools are lowering their standards further and further so that almost anybody can get their A levels and flood the universities. At the same time there are not enough people remaining for other paths of education – and those who are far too often are completely useless to the companies: People who can be described as unreliable at best are of no use at all. I did not want to be part of that madness and so I finally decided to get out and do what I probably should have done right from the start.

Vocational school: Windows

The German vocational school system is a bit special: You only go to school one or two days (this varies among semesters). What about the other days? You spend them in a company you apply at before you can start the apprenticeship. That way you get to know the daily work routine right from the start (which is a really good thing). School is meant to teach some general skills and at work you learn practical things.

On the first day I went to vocational school, I kind of felt… displaced. Why? Well, coming back to school to teach children is something that takes a moment to adjust to. I enjoyed teaching in general (even though there are always horrible classes as well ;)) but becoming a student again afterwards is really strange. At least for a while.

Subject matter was extremely easy for me. But being almost 30 years old when I started the apprenticeship of course meant that I had a lot more of knowledge and experience than the typical 18 or 20 years old student. However this was a good thing for me since I also have a wife, two children and had to drive about 1.5 hours to school and the same distance back. Which meant that I had far less time for homework or learning than the others. In fact I only found a few hours to learn for the preliminary exam as well as for the final exam. But that’s it.

We had PCs with Windows XP and were required to work with that. Most of my classmates protested because they were used to Windows 7. I simply installed Cygwin, changed tho panel position to top and things were pretty much ok for me (it’s only for a few hours, right?). A while later we got new PCs with Windows 8(.1?) and new policies. The later made it impossible for me to use Cygwin. Since I had never touched anything after Windows XP, I took my time to take a look at that system. In fact I tried to be open for new things and since a lot of time passed since I left Windows, I no longer had any strong feelings towards it. Still Win 8 managed to surprise me: It was even worse than I had thought possible…

The UI was just plain laughable. I have no idea how anybody could do some actual work with it using the mouse. Now, I’m a console guy and I need no mouse to do stuff (if I at least have Cygwin that is). But that must have been a joke, right?

Then I found out that Windows still was not capable of even reading an EXT2 file system. Oh my. So I decided to format one USB key to FAT32 for school. But guess what? When I attached it, Windows made some message pop up that it was installing drivers – which then failed… I removed the USB key and inserted it again. Same story. A classmate told me to try another USB connector. I thought that he was fooling me but he insisted on it so I did it (expecting him to laugh at me any second). To my big surprise this time the driver could be installed! But the story does not end here. No drive icon appeared in the explorer. I removed the USB key again and reattached it once more. Nothing. My classmate took it out yet again and plugged it into the former connector (the one from which installing the driver failed). And this time the drive appeared in the explorer! It was that moment that I realized not too much had changed since XP – despite the even uglier looks. Bluescreens, program crashes and cryptic error messages that I had not seen in years all were back.

I decided that I could not work like that and decided to bring a laptop each school day. Just about all my classmates were fine with Windows however. But speaking of classmates: We lost five of them in the first two years. Two simply never showed up again, two more were fired by their companies (due to various misbehavings) and thus could not continue their apprenticeship and the other one had a serious problem with alcohol (being just 17 years old) and was also fired.

BYOD: Linux desktop

My laptop was running Linux Mint. When I bought it, it came with Mint pre-installed. My wife got used to that system and did not like my idea to install a different system (I mainly use Arch Linux as a desktop at work and on other PCs at home) and so Linux Mint stayed on there.

There were a few classmates interested in Linux in general. These quickly became the ones that I spend most of my time in school with. Three already had some experience with it but that’s it. One of them decided that it was time to switch to Linux about a year ago. I introduced him to Arch and he’s a happy Antergos (an Arch-based distro) user since then. Another classmate was also unhappy with Windows at home. I answered a few questions and helped with the usual little problems and she successfully made the switch and runs Mint now.

Some teachers couldn’t quite understand how one could be such a weirdo and not even have one single Windows PC. We were supposed to finish some project planning using some Microsoft software (forgot the name of it). I told the teacher that the required software wouldn’t run on any of my operating systems. Anything not Windows obviously wasn’t thinkable for him and he replied that in that case I’d really have to update! I explained to him that this was not the case since I ran a rolling-release distro which was not just up to date but in fact bleeding edge.

When he understood that I only had Linux at home, he asked me to install Windows in that case. Now I told him that I didn’t own any current version of Windows. He rolled his eyes and replied that I could sign up for some Microsoft service (“dream spark” or something?) where each student or apprentice could get it all for free. Then I objected that this would be of no use since I could not install Windows even if I had a license because I did not agree to Microsoft’s EULA. For a moment he did not know what to say. Then he asked me to please do it at work then. “Sorry”, I replied, “we don’t use Windows in the office either.” After that he just walked away saying nothing.

We were required to learn some basics about object-orientated programming – using C#. So I got mono as well as monodevelop and initially followed the course.

Another Laptop: Puffy for fun!

I got an older laptop for a really cheap price from a classmate and put OpenBSD on there. After having played a bit with that OS in virtual machines I wanted to run it on real hardware and so that seemed to be the perfect chance to do it. OpenBSD with full disk encryption and everything worked really nice and I even got monodevelop on there (even though it was an ancient version). So after a week I decided to use that laptop in school because it was much smaller and lighter (14″ instead of 18.3″!) – and also cheaper. πŸ˜‰

After upgrading to OpenBSD 5.6 however, I realized that the mono package had been updated from 2.10.9p3 to 3.4.0p1 which broke the ancient (2.4.2p3 – from 2011!) version of monodevelop. Now I had the option of bringing that big Linux laptop again or downgrade OpenBSD to 5.5 again. I decided to go with option 3 and complain about .NET instead. By now the programming course teacher already knew me and I received permission to do the exercises with C++ instead! He just warned me that I’d be mostly on my own in that case and that I’d of course have to write the classroom tests on C# just like everyone else. I could live with that and it worked out really well. Later when we started little GUI programs with winforms I would have been out of luck even on Linux and mono anyway. So I did these with C++ and the FLTK toolkit.

Around christmas I visited my parents for some days. My mother’s computer (a Linux machine I had set up for her) stopped working. As my father decided that he’d replace it with a new Windows box (as that’s what he knows), I gave up my OpenBSD laptop. I installed Linux on it again and gave it to my mother as a replacement to prevent her having to re-learn everything on a Windows computer…

Beastie’s turn

So for the last couple of weeks I was back on Linux. However the final exam consists of two parts: A written exam and an oral one. The later is mostly a presentation of a 35 hour project that we had to do last year. I took the chance and chose a project involving FreeBSD (comparing configuration management tools for use on that particular OS). We also had to hand in a documentation of that project.

Six days before the presentation was to be held, I decided that it would suck to present a FreeBSD project using Linux. So I announced to my wife that I’d install a different OS on it now, did a full backup, inserted a PC-BSD 10.2 cd and rebooted. What then happened is a story of its own… With FreeBSD 10.3 just around the corner I’ll wait until that is released and write about my experiences with PC-BSD in a future blog post. Just so much for now: I have PC-BSD installed on the laptop – and that’s what I use to write this post.

The presentation also succeeded more or less (had a problem with Libre Office). But the big issue was that I obviously chose a topic that was too much for my examiners. My documentation was “too technical” (!) for them and they would have liked to see “a comparison with other operating systems, like Windows (!)” – which simply was far beyond the scope of my project… I ended up with a medicore mark for the project which is in complete contrast to the final grade of the vocational school (where I missed a perfect average by 0.1).

Ok, I cannot say that this came completely unexpected. I had been warned. Just a few years earlier, another apprentice chose a Linux topic and even failed the final exam! He took action against the examiners and court decided in his favor. His work was reviewed by people with Linux knowledge – and all of a sudden he was no longer failing but in fact got a 1 (German equivalent to an A)! I won’t sue anybody since I have passed. Still my conclusion here is that we need more people who dare to bring *nix topics on the list. I would do it again anytime. If you’re in the same situation: Please consider it.

Oh, and for another small success: The former classmate who runs Antergos also tried out FreeBSD on his server after I recommended it. He has come to like jails, the ports system and package audit among other things. One new happy *BSD user may not be much. But it’s certainly a good thing! Also all of my former classmates now at least know that *BSD exists. I’ve held presentations about that and mentioned it in many cases. Awareness for *nix systems and what they can do may lead to giving it a try some time in the future.

Top things that I missed in 2015

Another year of blogging comes to an end. It has been quite full of *BSD stuff so that I’d even say: Regarding this blog it has been a BSD year. This was not actually planned but isn’t a real surprise, either. I’ve not given up on Linux (which I use on a daily basis as my primary desktop OS) but it’s clear that I’m fascinated with the BSDs and will try to get into them further in 2016.

Despite being a busy year, there were quite a few things that I would have liked to do and blog about that never happened. I hope to be able to do some of these things next year.

Desktops, toolkits, live DVD

One of the most “successful” (in case of hits) article series was the desktop comparison that I did in 2012. Now in that field a lot has happened since then and I really wanted to do this again. Some desktops are no longer alive others have become available since then and it is a sure thing that the amount of memory needed has changed as well… πŸ˜‰

Also I’ve never been able to finish the toolkit comparison which I stopped in the middle of writing about GTK-based applications. This has been started in 2013 so it would also be about time. However my focus has shifted away from the original intend of finding tools for a light-weight Linux desktop. I’ve become involved with the EDE project (“Equinox Desktop Environment”) that uses the FLTK toolkit and so people could argue that I’m not really unbiased anymore. Then again… I chose to become involved because that was the winner of my last test series – and chances are that the reasons for it are still valid.

And then there’s the “Desktop Demo DVD” subproject that never really took off. I had an Arch-based image with quite some desktops to choose from but there were a few problems: Trinity could not be installed alongside KDE, Unity for Arch was not exactly in good shape, etc. But the biggest issue was the fact that I did not have webspace available to store a big iso file.

My traffic statistics show that there has been a constant interest in the article about creating an Arch Linux live-CD. Unfortunately it is completely obsolete since the tool that creates it has changed substantially. I’d really like to write an updated version somewhen.

In fact I wanted to start over with the desktop tests this summer and had started with this. However Virtual Box hardware acceleration for graphics was broken on Arch, and since this is a real blocker I could not continue (has this been resolved since?).


I wrote an article about HURD in 2013, too, and wanted to re-visit a HURD-based system to see what happened in the mean time. ArchHURD has been in coma for quite some time. Just recently there was a vital sign however. I wish the new developer best luck and will surely do another blog post about it once there’s something usable to show off!

The experiments with Arch and an alternative libc (musl) were stopped due to a lack of time and could be taken further. This has been an interesting project that I’d like to continue some time in some form. I also had some reviews of interesting but lesser known Linux distros in mind. Not sure if I find time for that, though.

There has been a whole lot going about both FreeBSD and OpenBSD. Still I would have liked to do more in that field (exploring jails, ZFS, etc.). But that’s things I’ll do in 2016 for sure.


I’ve played a bit with a Raspberry 2 and built a little router with it using a security orientated Linux distro. It was a fun project to do and maybe it is of any use to somebody.

One highlight that I’m looking forward to mess with is the RISC-V platform, a very promising effort to finally give us a CPU that is actually open hardware!

Other things

There are a few other things that I want to write about and hope to find time for soon. I messed with some version control tools a while back and this would make a nice series of articles, I think. Also I have something about devops in mind and want to do a brief comparison of some configuration management tools (Puppet, Chef, Salt Stack, Ansible – and perhaps some more). If there is interest in that I might pick it up and document some examples on FreeBSD or OpenBSD (there’s more than enough material for Linux around but *BSD is often a rather weak spot). We’ll see.

Well, and I still have one article about GPL vs. BSD license(s) in store that will surely happen next year. That and a few topics about programming that I’ve been thinking about writing for a while now.

So – goodbye 2015 and welcome 2016!

Happy new year everyone! As you can see, I have not run out of ideas. πŸ™‚

An interview with the Nanolinux developer

2014 is nearly over and for the last post this year I have something special for you again. Last year I posted an interview with the EDE developer and I thought that another interview would conclude this year of blogging quite fine.

In the previous post I reviewed Nanolinux (and two years ago XFDOS). Since I was in mail contact with the author about another project as well, it suggested itself that I’d ask him if he’d agree to give me an interview. He did!

So here’s an interview with Georg Potthast (known for a variety of projects: DOSUSB, Nanolinux and Netrider – to just name some of them) about his projects, the FLTK toolkit, DOS and developing Open Source software in general. Enjoy!

Interview with Georg Potthast

This interview was conducted via email.

Please introduce yourself first: How old are you and where are you from?

I am 61 years old and live in Ahlen, Germany. This is about 30 minutes drive from Dortmund where they used to brew beer and where the BVB Dortmund soccer team is currently struggling.

Do you have any hobbies which have nothing to do with the IT sector?

Not really. I did some Genealogy, which has to do a lot with IT these days. But now I have several IT projects I am working on.


You’re involved in the FreeDOS community and have put a lot of effort into XFDOS. A lot of people shake their heads and mumble something like “It’s 2014 now and not 1994…” – you know the score. What is your motivation to keep DOS alive?

I have been using DOS for a long time and wish it would not go away completely. So I developed these DOS applications, hoping to get more people to use DOS. But I have to agree that I have not been successful with that.

Potential software developers find only very few users for their applications which is demotivating. Also there is simply no hardware available today that is limited so much that you better use DOS on it. Everything is 32/64 bit, has at least 4 GB of memory and terabytes of disk space. And even the desktop PC market is suffering from people moving to tablets and smartphones.

People are still buying my DOSUSB driver frequently. They are using it mostly for embedded applications which shall not be ported to a different operating system for one reason or another.

Do you have any current plans regarding DOS?

I usually port my FLTK applications to DOS if it is not too much effort to do so. So they are available for Linux, Windows and DOS. Such as my FlDev IDE (Link here).

Recently I made a Qemu/FreeDOS bundle named DOS4WIN64 (Link here) that you can run as an application on any Windows 7/8 machine. This includes XFDOS. I see this as a path to run 16bit applications on 64bit Windows.

How complicated and time consuming is porting FLTK applications from Linux to DOS or vice versa?

It depends on the size and the dependencies on external libraries. I usually run ./configure on Linux and then copy the makefile to DOS where I replace-lXlib with -lNXlib plus -lnano-X. Then, provided the required external libraries could be downloaded from the djgpp site, it will compile if the makefile is not too complicated (recursive). Sometimes I also compile needed libraries for DOS which is usually not difficult if they have a command line interface.

You then have to test if all the features of the application work on DOS and make some adjustments here and there. Often you can use the Windows branch if available for the path definitions.

Porting DOS applications to Linux can be more complicated than vice versa.


For how long have you been using Linux?

I have been using Linux on and off. I began using SCO-Unix. However, I did not like setting things up with configuration files (case sensitive) scattered over many directories. It took me over a week to get serial communications to work to connect a modem. When I asked Linux developers for help they recommended to recompile the kernel first – which means they did not know how to do that either. So I returned to DOS at that time. But I have been using Linux a lot for several years now.

What is your distribution of choice and why?

I mainly use SUSE but I think Ubuntu may work just as well. This may sound dull but you do not have to spend time on adding drivers to the operating system or porting the libraries you need. The mainstream Linux distributions are well tested and documented and you do not have to spend the time to tailor the distro to your needs. They do just much more than you need so you are all set to start right away.

My own distro, Nanolinux, is a specialized distro which is meant to show how small a working Linux distro can be. It can be used on a flash disk, as an embedded system, a download on demand system or to quickly switch to Linux from within Windows.

However, if you have a 2 Terabyte hard disk available I would not use Nanolinux as the main distribution.


Which programming languages do you prefer?

I like Assembler. To be able to use X11 and FLTK I learned C and C++ which I currently use. I have not done any assembler in a while though.

You seem to like the idea of minimalism. Do you do use those minimalist applications on a daily base or are they more of a nice hobby?

Having a DOS and assembler background I always try not use more disk space than necessary. Programming is just my hobby.

Many of your projects use the FLTK toolkit. Why did you choose this one and not e.g. FOX?

I had ported Nano-X to DOS to provide an Xlib alternative for DOS developers. In addition I ported FLTK to DOS as well since FLTK can be used on the basis of Nano-X. So I am now used to FLTK.

Compared to the more common toolkits, FLTK suffers from a lack of applications. Which three FLTK applications that don’t exist (yet) do you miss the most?

I think FLTK is a GUI toolkit for developers, so it is not so important what applications are available based on FLTK.

If you look at my Nanolinux – given I add the NetRider browser and my FlMail program to the distro – it comes with all the main office applications done in FLTK. However, the quality of these applications is not as good as Libre Office, Firefox or Gimp. I do not expect anyone to write Libre Office with a FLTK GUI.

When you awake at night, a strange light surrounds you. The good FOSS fairy floats in the air before you! She can do absolutely everything FOSS related; whether it’s FLTK 3 being completed and released this year, a packaging standard that all Linux distros agree on or something a bit less unlikely. πŸ˜‰ She grants you three wishes!

As with FLTK 3 I wish it would change its name and the development would concentrate on FLTK 1.3.

Regarding the floating fairy I would wish the internet would be used by nice and friendly people only. Currently I see it endangered by massive spam, viruses, criminals and even cyber war as North Korea apparently did regarding the movie the ruling dictator wanted to stop being shown.

Back to serious. What do you think: Why is FLTK such a little known toolkit? And what could be done about that?

I do not think it is little known, just most people use GTK and so this is the “market leader”. If you work in a professional team this will usually decide to go for GTK since most members will be familiar with that.

What could be done about that? If KDE and Gnome would be based on FLTK I think the situation will change.

From your perspective of a developer: What do you miss about FLTK that the toolkit really should provide?

Frankly speaking, as a DOS developer the alternative would be to write your own GUI. And FLTK provides more features than you could ever develop on your own.

What I do not like is the lack of support for third party schemes. Dimitrj, a Russian FLTK developer who frequently posts as “kdiman” on the FLTK forums, created a very nice Oxy scheme. But it is not added to FLTK since the developers do not have the time to test all the changes he made to make FLTK look that good.

What do you think about the unfortunate FLTK 2 and the direction of FLTK 3?

I think these branches have been very unfortunate for FLTK. Many developers expected FLTK 2 to supersede FLTK 1.1 and waited for FLTK 2 to finish before developing an FLTK application. But FLTK 2 never got into a state where it could replace FLTK 1.1. Now the same seems to happen with FLTK 3.

So they should have named FLTK2/3 the XYZ-Toolkit and not FLTK 2 to avoid stopping people to choose FLTK 1.1.

Currently there is no development on FLTK 2/3 that I am aware of and I think the developers should concentrate on one version only. FLTK 1.3 works very well and does all that you need as a software developer as far as I can say.

Somebody with a bit of programming experience and some free time would like to get into FLTK. Any tips for him/her?

I wrote a tutorial which should allow even beginners in C++ programming to use FLTK successfully (Link here).


You’ve written quite a number of such applications yourself. Which of your projects is the most popular one (in terms of downloads or feedback)?

This is the Nanolinux distro. It has been downloaded 30.000 times this year.

NanoLinux… Can you describe what it is?

Let me cite Distrowatch, I cannot describe it better: Nanolinux is an open-source, free and very lightweight Linux distribution that requires only 14 MB of disk space. It includes tiny versions of the most common desktop applications and several games. It is based on the “MicroCore” edition of
the Tiny Core Linux distribution. Nanolinux uses BusyBox, Nano-X instead of X.Org, FLTK 1.3.x as the default GUI toolkit, and the super-lightweight SLWM window manager. The included applications are mainly based on FLTK.

After compiling the XFDOS distro I thought I would gain more users if I would port it to Linux. The size makes Nanolinux quite different from the others and I got a lot of downloads and reviews for it.

The project is based on TinyCore which makes use of FLTK itself. Is that the reason you chose this distro?

TinyCore was done by the former main developer of Damn Small Linux. So he had a lot of experience and did set up a very stable distro. Since I wanted to make a very small distro this was a good choice to use as a base. And I did not have to start from scratch and test that part of the distro forever.

NanoLinux uses an alternative windowing system. What can you tell us about the differences between NanoX and Xorg’s X11?

Nano-X is simply a tiny Xlib compatible library which has been used in a number of embedded Linux projects. Development started about 15 years ago as far as I recall. At that time many Linux application developers used X11 directly and therefore were willing to use an alternative like nano-X for their projects.

Since nano-X is not fully compatible to X11, a wrapper called NXlib was developed, which provides this compatibility and allows to base FLTK and other X11 applications on nano-X without code change. The compatibility is not 100% of cause, it is sufficient for FLTK and many X11 applications.

Since nano-X supported DOS in the early days I took this library and ported the current version to DOS again.


The project you are working on currently is NetRider, a browser based on webkit and FLTK. Please tell us how you came up with the idea for it.

Over the years I looked at other browser applications and thought how I could build my own browser, just out of interest. Finally Laura, another developer from the US, and I discussed it together. She came up with additional ideas and thoughts. That made me have a go at WebKit with FLTK.

What are your aims for NetRider?

I wanted to add a better browser to my Nanolinux distro replacing the Dillo browser. Also, as a FLTK user I wanted to provide a FLTK GUI for the WebKit package as an alternative to GTK and Qt.

There’s also the project Fifth which has quite similar aims at first sight. Why don’t you work together?

Lauri, the author of Fifth, and I started out about the same time with our FLTK browser projects, not knowing of each other’s plans. Now our projects run in parallel. Even though we both use FLTK, the projects are quite different.

We have not discussed working together yet and our objectives are different. He wants to write an Opera compatible browser and competes with the Otter browser while I am satisfied to come up with something better than Dillo.

I did not ask Lauri whether he thinks we should combine the projects. I am also not sure if this would help us both because we implemented different WebKit APIs for our browsers so we would have to make a WebKit library featuring two APIs. This could be done though. Also he is not interested in
supporting Windows which Laura and I want to support.

Would you say that NetRider is your biggest project so far? And what plans do you have for it?

Setting up Nanolinux and developing/porting all the applications for it was a big project too, and I plan to make a new release beginning of next year.

As with NetRider it depends if people like to use it or are interested to develop for / port it. Depending on the feedback I will make my plans. Recently I added some of the observations I got from beta testers, did support for additional languages, initial printing support etc.

The last one is yours: Which question would you have liked me to ask in addition to those and what is the answer to it?

I think you already asked more questions than I would have been able to come
up with. Thank you for the interesting questions.

Thanks a lot Georg, for answering these questions! Best wishes for your current and future projects!

What’s next?

I have a few things in mind… But I don’t know yet which one I’ll write about next. A happy new year to all my readers!

Tiny to the extreme: Nanolinux

It has been more than two years since I wrote about XFDOS, a graphical FreeDOS distribution with the FLTK toolkit and some applications for it (the project’s home is here.)

Mr. Potthast didn’t stop after this achievement however. Soon afterwards he published Nanolinux. And now I finally found the time to re-visit the world of tiny FLTK applications – this time on a genuine Linux system! And while it shows that it is closely related to XFDOS (starting with the wallpaper), Nanolinux does not follow the usual way at all according to which newer things are “bigger, badder and better”. It is rather “even smaller, more sophisticated and simple to use”!

I needed three attempts to catch the startup process properly because Nanolinux starts up very fast. Probably the most important difference from the DOS version is that Nanolinux can run multiple applications at the same time (which is something that goes without saying today). But there’s of course some more to it. If it weren’t then this review wouldn’t make much sense, would it?

The startup process of Nanolinux

TinyCore + NanoX + FLTK apps = Nanolinux?

Yes, that is what Nanolinux basically is. But that’s in fact more than you might expect. The first thing that is noteworthy is the size of Nanolinux: Just like the name suggests, it’s very small. It runs on systems with as little as 64 MB of RAM – and the whole iso for it is only 14 MB in size.

The Nanolinux desktop (second cursor is from the host machine)

While many people will be impressed by this fact I can hear some of you yawn. Don’t dismiss the project just yet! It’s true that people have stuffed some Linux 2.2 kernel on a single floppy and still had enough space remaining to pull together a somewhat usable system. But Nanolinux can hardly be compared to one of these. You have a Linux 3.0 kernel here – and it features a graphical desktop together with a surprisingly high amount of useful applications!


Speaking of applications: Most of which are part of XFDOS can be found in Nanolinux, too, like e.g. FlWriter, FlView and Dillo. There are just a few exceptions as well: The DOS media player, PDF viewer etc. However there are also a few programs on board which you don’t know from the graphical DOS distribution. I’m going to concentrate on these.

Showing off the Nanolinux menu

A nice one is the system stats program: As you would expect it gives you an overview of system ressources like CPU and RAM usage. But it does a lot more than that! It also lists running processes, shows your mounts, can display the dmesg – and more. Pretty useful small tool!

Then we have Fluff from TinyCore. It is a minimalist file manager. Don’t start looking for icons or things like that. It follows a text-based approach you may know in form of some console file manager. It’s small but functional and works pretty well once you get used to it.

System stats and the Fluff file manager

Want to communicate with others on the net? Not a problem for Nanolinux. While it comes with Dillo, this browser is not really capable of displaying today’s websites correctly. But Nanolinux also has FlChat – a complete IRC client! So it allows you to talk to people all over the world without much trouble.

FlChat – a FLTK IRC client!

Or perhaps you want to listen to music? In this case you’ve got the choice between two FLTK applications: FlMusic and FlRadio. The former is a CD player and the second let’s you listen to web radio stations. Since Nanolinux runs from RAM after it has started, it is no problem to eject the CD and put in some audio CD of your choice instead.

FlMusic and FlRadio for your ears


Even though that’s a pretty formidable collections of programs, there’s of course always the point where you need something Nanolinux does not provide. Like it’s mother, TinyCore, Nanolinux supports Extensions in this case. These are binary packages which can add pre-build applications to your system.

Let’s imagine you want to burn a CD. Nanolinux has an extension for FlBurn available. After clicking on it from the extension list, the system downloads and installs the extension. Once this is finished, FlBurn will be available on the system.

FlBurn installed from the extensions

There are a few extensions available for you. And what to do if you need a program that has not been packaged for Nanolinux? Well, you can always try to build it yourself. If you feel like it, there’s the compile_nl package for you which provides what you need.

Don’t be too ambitious however! Nanolinux comes with Nano-X, remember? That means any program which depends on some Xorg library won’t compile on your system. You’ll just end up with an error message like the one shown in the screenshot below!

Compiling your own packages with “compile_nl”


Nanolinux builds upon the core of the TinyCore Linux distribution – and while it remains below the ordinary TinyCore in size, it comes with many useful applications by default. It can run on a system with as little as 64 MB of RAM and is extensible if you need any programs which did not fit into the 14 MB iso image.

This little distribution can do that thanks to the use of Nano-X (think X11’s little brother) and a special version of the FLTK toolkit modified to cope with that slim windowing system. It is definitely worth a try if you’re at all into the world of minimalism. And even if you’re not – it can be a nice playing around just to see what is possible.

What’s next?

While I do have something in mind which would be fitting after this post, I’m not completely sure that I’ll manage to get it done within the remaining time of this year. Just wait and see!

Taking a look at ArchBSD

[UPDATE 06/2016: The project has changed its name and is now known as PacBSD. I’ll leave the rest of the post as-is.]

Today’s post will deal with ArchBSD, a rather young project which brings the familiar Arch way to the FreeBSD world.

Edit: Sorry for the delay in making this post public. Just like with the previous post I was having problems with the images. Also had to replace some of them.

Prerequisites and Installation

First go here and download the iso. This post was done with the new iso released in the beginning of this month.

If you’re going to try out ArchBSD in VirtualBox you better enable the IO APIC function first. Otherwise the FreeBSD kernel won’t boot and it’s not even going to give you any error message.

Enableing IO APIC in VirtualBox.

Let’s boot the iso! The new boot loader (GRUB 2) is looking nice. The previous iso still came with another boot loader.

ArchBSD’s boot loader on the live iso: GRUB 2.

It’s a good idea to follow the official install guide. I only have two things to add:

  1. Be sure to replace daX with adaX when referring to the hard disks.

  2. If you’re as lazy as me and use auto-completion even for /mnt, be sure to remove the tailing slash since the command ‘pacstrap /mnt/ base‘ won’t work.

Mind that and you should be ok. I won’t cover more of the installation here; except for those two things the guide is fine and the installation procedure is typical nowadays Arch-style.

Pacstrapin’ the “base” group.

The installation is a bit faster than that of ArchLinux since the base system is (currently) a little smaller. As you can tell from the packages and their download sizes, ArchBSD could more or less be called “FreeBSD with pacman“.


After setting it all up and rebooting we’re greeted by the ArchBSD boot screen. It features some very nice ASCII art and has a clean look. This is how things should be. Great work if you ask me!

The ArchBSD boot screen.

The FreeBSD kernel boots a little slower than we’re used to with the Linux-based system. But when the system is up we find a familiar Arch environment where little shows that this is not Linux.

ArchBSD has started.

Working with a distribution following a rolling release model our system is already up to date after installation and doesn’t have to be updated. So what to do next? Let’s see if ArchBSD provides Xorg! Does it? Of course it does. However it does not currently have twm available so we can’t simply get the traditional X11 – but who seriously uses that today?

So far nobody has packaged GNOME or KDE but since this is a nice slim system it’s not like I’d miss them here. Currently I have the choice between Xfce or LXDE if I want a full DE. LXDE is fine for me.

Installing the “lxde” group.

Just having LXDE installed, we really have a fairly light graphical system: Just look at the menu! There’s almost nothing there (which is good since that means we can install whatever we want).

LXDE running on ArchBSD.

Alright. Next we have to populate that bare system a bit, right? One of the most important things today surely is a web browser. ArchBSD currently offers Chromium and Links. Both are nice browsers in their own regard, the first one probably a bit too heavy, the later a bit too minimalistic. I’d like something in between – and that probably makes for a good next step! Let’s install the development group and links so I can get some PKGBUILDs from the ArchLinux site.

Installing “build-devel” and downloading PKGBUILDs.

Now things are getting a little more interesting. Just building the FLTK packages on ArchBSD using the ArchLinux PKGBUILD doesn’t work. The sed utility from the BSD world works differently and packagers for ArchBSD are to translate the lines calling sed. Since I have no experience with BSD sed, I’d have to read how to do it. Fortunately ArchBSD comes with gsed, too, the familiar GNU sed utility. It’s deprecated to use that but since I’m not an official packager and just want to get FLTK running, I guess it will be ok to just use that. After calling gsed and commenting out the lines installing the LICENSE files as a quick and dirty “fix”, FLTK compiles nicely and the packages are built.

Let’s install FLTK and try to build Dillo, a very light-weight FLTK based browser. The default ArchLinux configuration wants OpenSSL which is not (currently) available on ArchBSD. So for this quick look at the system it will suffice to just build Dillo without SSL support. It works perfectly and after the package is built, I can run the application:

Running the freshly built Dillo.

Well, obviously building packages on ArchBSD works well. You can easily run into problems (like with the OpenSSL package), though since the BSD world is quite a bit different from Linux under the hood. In cases like that a bit of deeper knowledge is required.

You have some time on your hands? You like what you’ve just seen? And think you’re cool enough to be part of BSD? Why not give ArchBSD a try then? Head over to their forums sign up there and lend them a hand! They will surely appreciate it.

What’s next?

The next post will be something special. I won’t spoil it here – but it has something to do with my favorite light-weight DE. Guess which one that is!

Linux GUI toolkits

We’re going to examine 7 toolkits in just a minute after discussing how to deal with this topic. These 7 are:

Some people say that Linux is all about is choice. True or not: When it comes to toolkits, it’s usually the programmers who have to make a choice. They have to check if a toolkit provides all the features they want and if they feel comfortable with its syntax and so on. However this blog entry is not about recommendations for programmers (there’s probably enough material out there already).

From which perspective are we going to look at them, if not from a programmer’s? Simple! From the perspective of a distribution creator wannabe! πŸ˜‰

Distributions and toolkits

For a distro creator things are much easier here – he could decide at will or even decide not to make a decision for one but support several (or all) available toolkits instead. There are reasons why this makes sense. Many modern systems combine for example Qt and GTK+ since the users often “mix” applications of both TKs. You like the well-known VLC? Then you have Qt on board. Using GIMP, too? Not without GTK+! Thanks to the theming ability, you usually won’t even notice that your default applications relay on different toolkits.

However there’s also a very good reason not to provide several toolkits by default: They all use up valuable system resources! In the planing especially for a light-weight distribution, it’s a very good idea to make a decision towards one standard toolkit and package default applications which use this particular one.

However it’s not as easy as that in this case. There are lighter and heavier toolskits. Of course the lighter ones lack several features that the others provide. But even more importantly for us: There are huge differences in the number of applications available for each TK! Unfortunately it’s the lightest TKs which have the lowest number of programs using them… So let’s take a closer look at this post’s topic!

Test criteria

As I said before, we won’t examine the TKs in their technical aspects (or distinguish between toolkit, development framework, etc). Of course things like FOX not supporting themes can be very relevant when deciding on the right standard toolkit for our distro. But that’s beyond the scope of this blog entry.

We’re just going look at the various TKs in terms of how “heavy” the are. To do this, we compare the amount of drive space they need, how long they take to compile and how many dependencies they have. The first is done with the Arch Linux packages for the particular TK and the rest on a fresh Gentoo VM (emulating a single core 2.66 GHz pc with 2 GB ram and compiling with -j1) with just X11 installed. There are however a few things which make our comparison a bit difficult – for that reason I’ll explain each toolkit on its own first and provide a table at the end of the post.


I thought about including Qt3, too, for a moment. Why? Well, it would have made a nice comparison on how much heavier Qt4 is and besides that, Trinity DE still uses it. But Qt5 is already on its way and so I decided to discard it.

Qt4 is one colossus of a TK! The Arch package (qt-4.8.2-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is 21.0 MB in size and 80.4 MB uncompressed!

It’s so big that it was split into smaller packages on Gentoo (qt-script, qt-bearer, qt-sql, qt-xmlpatterns, qt-opengl, qt-core, qt-phonon, qt-test, qt-declarative, qt-demo, qt-mobility, qt-qt3support, qt-svg, qt-dbus, qt-multimedia, qt-webkit, qt-openvg, qt-assistand, qt-gui). 115 packages have to be compiled and installed and 386 MB downloaded from the net to do this! The source code for Qt alone (qt-everywhere-opensource-src-4.8.2.tar.gz) is 234 MB in size; the total compilation process takes 3:20:45 of which Qt alone takes 2:32:14!


GTK+3 is not actually a stand-alone TK but in fact extends and as such depends on the older GTK+2.

The Arch package (gtk3-3.2.3-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is 6.6 MB in size (together with GTK+2: 13.3 MB) and uncompressed it needs 51.5 MB (together with GTK+2: 106 MB).

Building it on Gentoo means compiling and installing 89 packages whose source code is 132 MB in size of which the GTK+3 source makes up 12 MB (together with GTK+2: 24.6 MB. Compiling takes 45:51 minutes of which 5:37 are for compiling GTK+3 (together with GTK+2: 11:27 minutes).


The Arch package for GTK+2 (gtk2-2.24.10-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is 6.7 MB in size and 54.4 MB uncompressed.

To install it on Gentoo, 88 packages have to be built and 120 MB of sources downloaded. GTK+2 source code makes up 12.6 MB of that. Compiling the whole thing takes 40:00 minutes and GTK+2 alone takes 5:50 minutes.


GNUstep, being based on the objective-c language, has the disadvantage that the whole GCC needs to be recompiled with OBJ-c enabled on Gentoo. This is of course a very big factor, but while I wanted to mention it, I’ll subtract the GCC recompile on the comparison.

GNUstep consists of several packages by default. The Arch packages (gnustep-back-0.22.0-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz, gnustep-base-1.24.0-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz, gnustep-gui-0.22.0-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz, gnustep-make-2.6.2-2-any.pkg.tar.xz) are together 3.9 MB in size and 16.7 MB uncompressed.

Building on Gentoo means installing 93 packages for which 206 MB of source code needs to be downloaded (including GCC recompile) or 92 packages, 141 MB in size (without GCC recompile). The packages (gnustep-base-1.24.0.tar.gz, gnustep-gui-0.22.0.tar.gz, gnustep-make-2.6.2.tar.gz, gnustep-back-0.22.0.tar.gz) are 7,0 MB in size. Compiling takes 1:27:13 (including GCC recompile), 43:51 minutes (without it) and 4:22 minutes for GNUstep alone.


The Arch package for FOX (fox-1.6.40-1-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is 3.9 MB in size and 13.8 MB uncompressed.

Building it on Gentoo means compiling 6 packages whose source is 5.0 MB in size of which FOX’s source code makes up 4.3 MB. Compiling it all takes 5:59 minutes and FOX alone takes 4:49 minutes.


OpenMotif’s Arch package (openmotif-2.3.3-2-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is 3.3 MB in size and 10.3 MB uncompressed.

Installing it on Gentoo means building 4 packages for which 6.7 MB of source code has do be downloaded, 5.9 MB of source for OpenMotif alone. Building it takes 3:29 minutes while OpenMotif alone takes 2:58 minutes.


FLTK (pronounced “fulltick”) is a very light toolkit. It’s Arch package (fltk-1.3.0-3-i686.pkg.tar.xz) is just 1.0 MB in size and uncompressed it only takes 4.7 MB of space.

To install it on Gentoo, 7 packages have to be built, which needs 7.2 MB of source code downloaded from the net. 4.0 MB of which is for FLTK source. Building only takes 2:42 mintes and for FLTK alone it’s as little as 1:04 minutes!


Toolkit Arch size Gentoo Src size Build time (h:m:s)
FLTK 1.0 / 4.7 7 pkgs 7.2 / 4.0 0:02:42 / 0:01:04
OpenMotif 3.3 / 10.3 4 pkgs 6.7 / 5.9 0:03:29 / 0:02:58
FOX 3.9 / 13.8 6 pkgs 5.0 / 4.3 0:05:59 / 0:04:49
GNUstep* 3.9 / 16.7 92 pkgs 141 / 7 0:43:51 / 0:04:22
GTK+2 6.7 / 54.4 88 pkgs 120 / 12.6 0:40:00 / 0:05:50
GTK+3** 13.3 / 106 89 pkgs 132 / 24.6 0:45:51 / 0:11:27
Qt4 21.0 / 80.4 115 pkgs 386 / 234 3:20:45 / 2:32:14

All sizes in MB.
*) without recompiling GCC for OBJ-C support
**) Including GTK+2


The winner and most light-weight toolkit is easily FLTK. It has the smallest installed size, smallest source and shortest compilation time, both including dependencies and on its own. Only in the number of dependencies it’s beaten by OpenMotif and FOX which are quite light-weight in the other aspects, too. With GNUstep things become a lot more heavy and GTK+ or Qt are of course full-blown toolkits which provide about every feature you’d need but are also very bloated.

We’ll drop FOX and GNUstep from now on, since there’s no working desktop environment using them at the moment (There’s a project to create a FOX DE, but it seems to be inactive since 2005 and ÈtoilΓ¨ (GNUstep) is a mess right now) which makes them irrelevant for our purpose. There was of course some value in adding them to this comparison, though.

What’s next?

Before we go on with comparing TKs and DEs while running some standard applications somewhen next month, the next post will deal with creating a live-cd. This will be an essential task sooner or later and I also need it for “DDD”, one of Eerie’s sub-projects which was not yet revealed (don’t expect too much, though).

An extraordinary TK example!

The last blog post was a little introduction to toolkits in general – now it’s time for a truly special case! While it doesn’t really fit completely with what we’re doing here, it’s close enough to provide a fine example. (That and I like it enough to think that it deserves some more attention outside the narrow scene that’s usually interested in such a thing!)

An unusual distribution

Our example is a graphical distribution with a tiny display server (Nano-X), a simple window manager and FLTK (Fast Light ToolKit) as GUI toolkit. According to its site, FLTK is a cross-platform C++ GUI toolkit for UNIX/Linux, Windows and MacOS X. The uncompressed iso of the distribution is just a little over 60 MB in size. Now take a look at the desktop and guess, which operating system this is based on (and don’t look at the tags of this post if you don’t want to spoil the fun)!

“A graphical distribution using Nano-X and FLTK”

Which OS?

So what do you think from what you see? It looks fairly decent if maybe a bit unoriginal. Is it Windows? No, Windows knows no X11 and thus no Nano-X – and Windows hasn’t fit in ~60 MB for ages! MacOS? To big, too and we were talking about a distribution. So again: No. Linux then? Sounds likely. But a tiny Linux distribution with graphical abilities is nothing special and even less something revolutionary!

Want to see another screenshot? Here’s a FLTK application running:
FlWriter – a simple FLTK word processor

So is it Unix? Some BSD? Or Minix perhaps? No, none of these! A rather exotic thing then? MenuetOS or V2-OS (two operating systems written entirely in assembler!)? Nope. Something completely new? No, you know it, trust me. And it’s not ReactOS or anything like that, either. It’s far easier: This is… DOS.

No, I’m serious! Really, this is Nano-X and FLTK ported to DOS by G. Potthast. The distribution we’re talking about is XFDOS! If you still don’t believe me, just scroll down to the end of this post. There’s a link to the project’s page where you can download it and see for yourself!

It comes with quite some programs, so you can really call it a distribution. There’s a word processor, a spreadsheet application, a painting program, a picture viewer, a pdf viewer and some more.

Alright, it’s still not of much value for daily use. While it even features USB support, there’s no multitasking for example and quite a few other things disqualify XFDOS as a primary OS. But that’s not what it’s meant for, anyway. It’s a great achievement and a neat example of what can actually be done. And it’s surely a huge step ahead of what a DOS GUI usually looks like! You don’t know what I mean? Heh, this gives me a good reason to set up a FreeDOS VM quickly and install OpenGEM again to show you (yes, I really worked with that before – but it’s been years…)!

OpenGEM – a DOS GUI running on FreeDOS

A toolkit in action

This exotic example now gives us the chance to compare a FLTK program running on two entirely different platforms. First take a look at the DOS port of the web browser Dillo:

Dillo – a FLTK-based browser (DOS version!)

And now compare it with Dillo running on a bare-bone Gentoo system running only X11+twm:

Dillo – a FLTK-based browser (on Gentoo)

As you can see, Dillo looks alike on such different platforms as DOS and Linux. Ok, the screenshots show quite some differences… But this is mainly the window bar which is a task of the window manager. Other than that there are a few differences thanks to the fact that XFDOS uses Dillo 3.0 and my Gentoo build is 3.0.2. Also some buttons are grayed out on the later but you can take my word for them to look alike if they both were active.

Even though in the first example the application is running in full screen while in the second it is not, it becomes clear that the application has the same style (buttons, scroll-bar, etc.) on both platforms and this is actually all I wanted to show here: GUI toolkits provide typical graphical elements so that the programmer doesn’t have to care for how they look on other platforms!

Interested in XFDOS?

You can explore the projet’s site here:

What’s next?

In the next post we’ll take a look at the various GUI toolkits available for Linux.