School, exams and… BSD!

Alright, January is already almost over, so there’s not much use in wishing my readers a happy new year, right? I wanted to have this month’s blog post out much earlier and in fact wanted to write about a completely different topic. But after January 27th it was pretty obvious for me what I’d have to write about – On that day I passed my final exam and now I’m a Computer Science Expert by profession. Time to take a look back at the apprenticeship and the status of *nix in German IT training today.

Spoiler: It’s Microsoft, Microsoft and again Microsoft. Only then there’s one drop of Linux in the ocean. I had left the (overly colorful) world of Windows in 2008. When I started the apprenticeship I was determined not to eat humble pie and come crawling back to that. While it was at times a rather tough fight, it was possible to do. And I’m documenting it here because I want to encourage other people to also take this path. The more people take the challenge the easier it will become for everyone. Besides: It is absolutely necessary to blaze the trail for better technology to actually arrive in mainstream business. This is of great importance if we do not want to totally fall behind.

Detours

I didn’t take the straight way into IT. While I had been hooked with computers since I was a little child, I also found that I had a passion to explain things to others. I gave private lessons after school for many years and after passing the Abitur (think of the British A levels) I chose to go to the university to become a teacher.

It took me a very long time of struggle to accept that I could not actually do that for a living. I am in fundamental opposition to how the German school system is being ruined and I could not spend all my work life faithfully serving an employer that I have not even the least bit of respect for.

The situation is as follows: We once had a school system in Germany that aimed at educating young people to be fit for whatever their life holds. The result was people who could stand on their own feet. Today the opposite is true: A lot of people who leave school have no idea how to find their way in life. Playing computer games is the only thing that a lot of young men (and an increasing number of women) actually do. They have not developed any character, they have no passion for anything (and thus no goals in life) and they often haven’t learned no empathy at all (and thus keep hurting other people – not even because of bad will but because of total ignorance).

At the same time things taught in school aim purely at making people available as workmen as soon as possible. Sounds contradictory? Sure thing. At the university I enjoyed the benefits of the old system where there was relatively large academic freedom and you were encouraged to take your time to learn things properly, to do some research if you hit topics of interest to you and to take courses from other faculties, etc. And this is pure insanity: All that is largely gone. New students are forced to hasten through their studies thanks to tight requirements (which semester to take which course in – very schoolish, no freedom at all)… In the name of “comparability” we did away with our own academic degrees only to adopt the inferior “master” (as well as the even more inferior “bachelor”).

Secondary schools are lowering their standards further and further so that almost anybody can get their A levels and flood the universities. At the same time there are not enough people remaining for other paths of education – and those who are far too often are completely useless to the companies: People who can be described as unreliable at best are of no use at all. I did not want to be part of that madness and so I finally decided to get out and do what I probably should have done right from the start.

Vocational school: Windows

The German vocational school system is a bit special: You only go to school one or two days (this varies among semesters). What about the other days? You spend them in a company you apply at before you can start the apprenticeship. That way you get to know the daily work routine right from the start (which is a really good thing). School is meant to teach some general skills and at work you learn practical things.

On the first day I went to vocational school, I kind of felt… displaced. Why? Well, coming back to school to teach children is something that takes a moment to adjust to. I enjoyed teaching in general (even though there are always horrible classes as well ;)) but becoming a student again afterwards is really strange. At least for a while.

Subject matter was extremely easy for me. But being almost 30 years old when I started the apprenticeship of course meant that I had a lot more of knowledge and experience than the typical 18 or 20 years old student. However this was a good thing for me since I also have a wife, two children and had to drive about 1.5 hours to school and the same distance back. Which meant that I had far less time for homework or learning than the others. In fact I only found a few hours to learn for the preliminary exam as well as for the final exam. But that’s it.

We had PCs with Windows XP and were required to work with that. Most of my classmates protested because they were used to Windows 7. I simply installed Cygwin, changed tho panel position to top and things were pretty much ok for me (it’s only for a few hours, right?). A while later we got new PCs with Windows 8(.1?) and new policies. The later made it impossible for me to use Cygwin. Since I had never touched anything after Windows XP, I took my time to take a look at that system. In fact I tried to be open for new things and since a lot of time passed since I left Windows, I no longer had any strong feelings towards it. Still Win 8 managed to surprise me: It was even worse than I had thought possible…

The UI was just plain laughable. I have no idea how anybody could do some actual work with it using the mouse. Now, I’m a console guy and I need no mouse to do stuff (if I at least have Cygwin that is). But that must have been a joke, right?

Then I found out that Windows still was not capable of even reading an EXT2 file system. Oh my. So I decided to format one USB key to FAT32 for school. But guess what? When I attached it, Windows made some message pop up that it was installing drivers – which then failed… I removed the USB key and inserted it again. Same story. A classmate told me to try another USB connector. I thought that he was fooling me but he insisted on it so I did it (expecting him to laugh at me any second). To my big surprise this time the driver could be installed! But the story does not end here. No drive icon appeared in the explorer. I removed the USB key again and reattached it once more. Nothing. My classmate took it out yet again and plugged it into the former connector (the one from which installing the driver failed). And this time the drive appeared in the explorer! It was that moment that I realized not too much had changed since XP – despite the even uglier looks. Bluescreens, program crashes and cryptic error messages that I had not seen in years all were back.

I decided that I could not work like that and decided to bring a laptop each school day. Just about all my classmates were fine with Windows however. But speaking of classmates: We lost five of them in the first two years. Two simply never showed up again, two more were fired by their companies (due to various misbehavings) and thus could not continue their apprenticeship and the other one had a serious problem with alcohol (being just 17 years old) and was also fired.

BYOD: Linux desktop

My laptop was running Linux Mint. When I bought it, it came with Mint pre-installed. My wife got used to that system and did not like my idea to install a different system (I mainly use Arch Linux as a desktop at work and on other PCs at home) and so Linux Mint stayed on there.

There were a few classmates interested in Linux in general. These quickly became the ones that I spend most of my time in school with. Three already had some experience with it but that’s it. One of them decided that it was time to switch to Linux about a year ago. I introduced him to Arch and he’s a happy Antergos (an Arch-based distro) user since then. Another classmate was also unhappy with Windows at home. I answered a few questions and helped with the usual little problems and she successfully made the switch and runs Mint now.

Some teachers couldn’t quite understand how one could be such a weirdo and not even have one single Windows PC. We were supposed to finish some project planning using some Microsoft software (forgot the name of it). I told the teacher that the required software wouldn’t run on any of my operating systems. Anything not Windows obviously wasn’t thinkable for him and he replied that in that case I’d really have to update! I explained to him that this was not the case since I ran a rolling-release distro which was not just up to date but in fact bleeding edge.

When he understood that I only had Linux at home, he asked me to install Windows in that case. Now I told him that I didn’t own any current version of Windows. He rolled his eyes and replied that I could sign up for some Microsoft service (“dream spark” or something?) where each student or apprentice could get it all for free. Then I objected that this would be of no use since I could not install Windows even if I had a license because I did not agree to Microsoft’s EULA. For a moment he did not know what to say. Then he asked me to please do it at work then. “Sorry”, I replied, “we don’t use Windows in the office either.” After that he just walked away saying nothing.

We were required to learn some basics about object-orientated programming – using C#. So I got mono as well as monodevelop and initially followed the course.

Another Laptop: Puffy for fun!

I got an older laptop for a really cheap price from a classmate and put OpenBSD on there. After having played a bit with that OS in virtual machines I wanted to run it on real hardware and so that seemed to be the perfect chance to do it. OpenBSD with full disk encryption and everything worked really nice and I even got monodevelop on there (even though it was an ancient version). So after a week I decided to use that laptop in school because it was much smaller and lighter (14″ instead of 18.3″!) – and also cheaper. 😉

After upgrading to OpenBSD 5.6 however, I realized that the mono package had been updated from 2.10.9p3 to 3.4.0p1 which broke the ancient (2.4.2p3 – from 2011!) version of monodevelop. Now I had the option of bringing that big Linux laptop again or downgrade OpenBSD to 5.5 again. I decided to go with option 3 and complain about .NET instead. By now the programming course teacher already knew me and I received permission to do the exercises with C++ instead! He just warned me that I’d be mostly on my own in that case and that I’d of course have to write the classroom tests on C# just like everyone else. I could live with that and it worked out really well. Later when we started little GUI programs with winforms I would have been out of luck even on Linux and mono anyway. So I did these with C++ and the FLTK toolkit.

Around christmas I visited my parents for some days. My mother’s computer (a Linux machine I had set up for her) stopped working. As my father decided that he’d replace it with a new Windows box (as that’s what he knows), I gave up my OpenBSD laptop. I installed Linux on it again and gave it to my mother as a replacement to prevent her having to re-learn everything on a Windows computer…

Beastie’s turn

So for the last couple of weeks I was back on Linux. However the final exam consists of two parts: A written exam and an oral one. The later is mostly a presentation of a 35 hour project that we had to do last year. I took the chance and chose a project involving FreeBSD (comparing configuration management tools for use on that particular OS). We also had to hand in a documentation of that project.

Six days before the presentation was to be held, I decided that it would suck to present a FreeBSD project using Linux. So I announced to my wife that I’d install a different OS on it now, did a full backup, inserted a PC-BSD 10.2 cd and rebooted. What then happened is a story of its own… With FreeBSD 10.3 just around the corner I’ll wait until that is released and write about my experiences with PC-BSD in a future blog post. Just so much for now: I have PC-BSD installed on the laptop – and that’s what I use to write this post.

The presentation also succeeded more or less (had a problem with Libre Office). But the big issue was that I obviously chose a topic that was too much for my examiners. My documentation was “too technical” (!) for them and they would have liked to see “a comparison with other operating systems, like Windows (!)” – which simply was far beyond the scope of my project… I ended up with a medicore mark for the project which is in complete contrast to the final grade of the vocational school (where I missed a perfect average by 0.1).

Ok, I cannot say that this came completely unexpected. I had been warned. Just a few years earlier, another apprentice chose a Linux topic and even failed the final exam! He took action against the examiners and court decided in his favor. His work was reviewed by people with Linux knowledge – and all of a sudden he was no longer failing but in fact got a 1 (German equivalent to an A)! I won’t sue anybody since I have passed. Still my conclusion here is that we need more people who dare to bring *nix topics on the list. I would do it again anytime. If you’re in the same situation: Please consider it.

Oh, and for another small success: The former classmate who runs Antergos also tried out FreeBSD on his server after I recommended it. He has come to like jails, the ports system and package audit among other things. One new happy *BSD user may not be much. But it’s certainly a good thing! Also all of my former classmates now at least know that *BSD exists. I’ve held presentations about that and mentioned it in many cases. Awareness for *nix systems and what they can do may lead to giving it a try some time in the future.

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An interview with the Nanolinux developer

2014 is nearly over and for the last post this year I have something special for you again. Last year I posted an interview with the EDE developer and I thought that another interview would conclude this year of blogging quite fine.

In the previous post I reviewed Nanolinux (and two years ago XFDOS). Since I was in mail contact with the author about another project as well, it suggested itself that I’d ask him if he’d agree to give me an interview. He did!

So here’s an interview with Georg Potthast (known for a variety of projects: DOSUSB, Nanolinux and Netrider – to just name some of them) about his projects, the FLTK toolkit, DOS and developing Open Source software in general. Enjoy!

Interview with Georg Potthast

This interview was conducted via email.

Please introduce yourself first: How old are you and where are you from?

I am 61 years old and live in Ahlen, Germany. This is about 30 minutes drive from Dortmund where they used to brew beer and where the BVB Dortmund soccer team is currently struggling.

Do you have any hobbies which have nothing to do with the IT sector?

Not really. I did some Genealogy, which has to do a lot with IT these days. But now I have several IT projects I am working on.

DOS

You’re involved in the FreeDOS community and have put a lot of effort into XFDOS. A lot of people shake their heads and mumble something like “It’s 2014 now and not 1994…” – you know the score. What is your motivation to keep DOS alive?

I have been using DOS for a long time and wish it would not go away completely. So I developed these DOS applications, hoping to get more people to use DOS. But I have to agree that I have not been successful with that.

Potential software developers find only very few users for their applications which is demotivating. Also there is simply no hardware available today that is limited so much that you better use DOS on it. Everything is 32/64 bit, has at least 4 GB of memory and terabytes of disk space. And even the desktop PC market is suffering from people moving to tablets and smartphones.

People are still buying my DOSUSB driver frequently. They are using it mostly for embedded applications which shall not be ported to a different operating system for one reason or another.

Do you have any current plans regarding DOS?

I usually port my FLTK applications to DOS if it is not too much effort to do so. So they are available for Linux, Windows and DOS. Such as my FlDev IDE (Link here).

Recently I made a Qemu/FreeDOS bundle named DOS4WIN64 (Link here) that you can run as an application on any Windows 7/8 machine. This includes XFDOS. I see this as a path to run 16bit applications on 64bit Windows.

How complicated and time consuming is porting FLTK applications from Linux to DOS or vice versa?

It depends on the size and the dependencies on external libraries. I usually run ./configure on Linux and then copy the makefile to DOS where I replace-lXlib with -lNXlib plus -lnano-X. Then, provided the required external libraries could be downloaded from the djgpp site, it will compile if the makefile is not too complicated (recursive). Sometimes I also compile needed libraries for DOS which is usually not difficult if they have a command line interface.

You then have to test if all the features of the application work on DOS and make some adjustments here and there. Often you can use the Windows branch if available for the path definitions.

Porting DOS applications to Linux can be more complicated than vice versa.

Linux

For how long have you been using Linux?

I have been using Linux on and off. I began using SCO-Unix. However, I did not like setting things up with configuration files (case sensitive) scattered over many directories. It took me over a week to get serial communications to work to connect a modem. When I asked Linux developers for help they recommended to recompile the kernel first – which means they did not know how to do that either. So I returned to DOS at that time. But I have been using Linux a lot for several years now.

What is your distribution of choice and why?

I mainly use SUSE but I think Ubuntu may work just as well. This may sound dull but you do not have to spend time on adding drivers to the operating system or porting the libraries you need. The mainstream Linux distributions are well tested and documented and you do not have to spend the time to tailor the distro to your needs. They do just much more than you need so you are all set to start right away.

My own distro, Nanolinux, is a specialized distro which is meant to show how small a working Linux distro can be. It can be used on a flash disk, as an embedded system, a download on demand system or to quickly switch to Linux from within Windows.

However, if you have a 2 Terabyte hard disk available I would not use Nanolinux as the main distribution.

FLTK

Which programming languages do you prefer?

I like Assembler. To be able to use X11 and FLTK I learned C and C++ which I currently use. I have not done any assembler in a while though.

You seem to like the idea of minimalism. Do you do use those minimalist applications on a daily base or are they more of a nice hobby?

Having a DOS and assembler background I always try not use more disk space than necessary. Programming is just my hobby.

Many of your projects use the FLTK toolkit. Why did you choose this one and not e.g. FOX?

I had ported Nano-X to DOS to provide an Xlib alternative for DOS developers. In addition I ported FLTK to DOS as well since FLTK can be used on the basis of Nano-X. So I am now used to FLTK.

Compared to the more common toolkits, FLTK suffers from a lack of applications. Which three FLTK applications that don’t exist (yet) do you miss the most?

I think FLTK is a GUI toolkit for developers, so it is not so important what applications are available based on FLTK.

If you look at my Nanolinux – given I add the NetRider browser and my FlMail program to the distro – it comes with all the main office applications done in FLTK. However, the quality of these applications is not as good as Libre Office, Firefox or Gimp. I do not expect anyone to write Libre Office with a FLTK GUI.

When you awake at night, a strange light surrounds you. The good FOSS fairy floats in the air before you! She can do absolutely everything FOSS related; whether it’s FLTK 3 being completed and released this year, a packaging standard that all Linux distros agree on or something a bit less unlikely. 😉 She grants you three wishes!

As with FLTK 3 I wish it would change its name and the development would concentrate on FLTK 1.3.

Regarding the floating fairy I would wish the internet would be used by nice and friendly people only. Currently I see it endangered by massive spam, viruses, criminals and even cyber war as North Korea apparently did regarding the movie the ruling dictator wanted to stop being shown.

Back to serious. What do you think: Why is FLTK such a little known toolkit? And what could be done about that?

I do not think it is little known, just most people use GTK and so this is the “market leader”. If you work in a professional team this will usually decide to go for GTK since most members will be familiar with that.

What could be done about that? If KDE and Gnome would be based on FLTK I think the situation will change.

From your perspective of a developer: What do you miss about FLTK that the toolkit really should provide?

Frankly speaking, as a DOS developer the alternative would be to write your own GUI. And FLTK provides more features than you could ever develop on your own.

What I do not like is the lack of support for third party schemes. Dimitrj, a Russian FLTK developer who frequently posts as “kdiman” on the FLTK forums, created a very nice Oxy scheme. But it is not added to FLTK since the developers do not have the time to test all the changes he made to make FLTK look that good.

What do you think about the unfortunate FLTK 2 and the direction of FLTK 3?

I think these branches have been very unfortunate for FLTK. Many developers expected FLTK 2 to supersede FLTK 1.1 and waited for FLTK 2 to finish before developing an FLTK application. But FLTK 2 never got into a state where it could replace FLTK 1.1. Now the same seems to happen with FLTK 3.

So they should have named FLTK2/3 the XYZ-Toolkit and not FLTK 2 to avoid stopping people to choose FLTK 1.1.

Currently there is no development on FLTK 2/3 that I am aware of and I think the developers should concentrate on one version only. FLTK 1.3 works very well and does all that you need as a software developer as far as I can say.

Somebody with a bit of programming experience and some free time would like to get into FLTK. Any tips for him/her?

I wrote a tutorial which should allow even beginners in C++ programming to use FLTK successfully (Link here).

Nanolinux

You’ve written quite a number of such applications yourself. Which of your projects is the most popular one (in terms of downloads or feedback)?

This is the Nanolinux distro. It has been downloaded 30.000 times this year.

NanoLinux… Can you describe what it is?

Let me cite Distrowatch, I cannot describe it better: Nanolinux is an open-source, free and very lightweight Linux distribution that requires only 14 MB of disk space. It includes tiny versions of the most common desktop applications and several games. It is based on the “MicroCore” edition of
the Tiny Core Linux distribution. Nanolinux uses BusyBox, Nano-X instead of X.Org, FLTK 1.3.x as the default GUI toolkit, and the super-lightweight SLWM window manager. The included applications are mainly based on FLTK.

After compiling the XFDOS distro I thought I would gain more users if I would port it to Linux. The size makes Nanolinux quite different from the others and I got a lot of downloads and reviews for it.

The project is based on TinyCore which makes use of FLTK itself. Is that the reason you chose this distro?

TinyCore was done by the former main developer of Damn Small Linux. So he had a lot of experience and did set up a very stable distro. Since I wanted to make a very small distro this was a good choice to use as a base. And I did not have to start from scratch and test that part of the distro forever.

NanoLinux uses an alternative windowing system. What can you tell us about the differences between NanoX and Xorg’s X11?

Nano-X is simply a tiny Xlib compatible library which has been used in a number of embedded Linux projects. Development started about 15 years ago as far as I recall. At that time many Linux application developers used X11 directly and therefore were willing to use an alternative like nano-X for their projects.

Since nano-X is not fully compatible to X11, a wrapper called NXlib was developed, which provides this compatibility and allows to base FLTK and other X11 applications on nano-X without code change. The compatibility is not 100% of cause, it is sufficient for FLTK and many X11 applications.

Since nano-X supported DOS in the early days I took this library and ported the current version to DOS again.

Netrider

The project you are working on currently is NetRider, a browser based on webkit and FLTK. Please tell us how you came up with the idea for it.

Over the years I looked at other browser applications and thought how I could build my own browser, just out of interest. Finally Laura, another developer from the US, and I discussed it together. She came up with additional ideas and thoughts. That made me have a go at WebKit with FLTK.

What are your aims for NetRider?

I wanted to add a better browser to my Nanolinux distro replacing the Dillo browser. Also, as a FLTK user I wanted to provide a FLTK GUI for the WebKit package as an alternative to GTK and Qt.

There’s also the project Fifth which has quite similar aims at first sight. Why don’t you work together?

Lauri, the author of Fifth, and I started out about the same time with our FLTK browser projects, not knowing of each other’s plans. Now our projects run in parallel. Even though we both use FLTK, the projects are quite different.

We have not discussed working together yet and our objectives are different. He wants to write an Opera compatible browser and competes with the Otter browser while I am satisfied to come up with something better than Dillo.

I did not ask Lauri whether he thinks we should combine the projects. I am also not sure if this would help us both because we implemented different WebKit APIs for our browsers so we would have to make a WebKit library featuring two APIs. This could be done though. Also he is not interested in
supporting Windows which Laura and I want to support.

Would you say that NetRider is your biggest project so far? And what plans do you have for it?

Setting up Nanolinux and developing/porting all the applications for it was a big project too, and I plan to make a new release beginning of next year.

As with NetRider it depends if people like to use it or are interested to develop for / port it. Depending on the feedback I will make my plans. Recently I added some of the observations I got from beta testers, did support for additional languages, initial printing support etc.

The last one is yours: Which question would you have liked me to ask in addition to those and what is the answer to it?

I think you already asked more questions than I would have been able to come
up with. Thank you for the interesting questions.

Thanks a lot Georg, for answering these questions! Best wishes for your current and future projects!

What’s next?

I have a few things in mind… But I don’t know yet which one I’ll write about next. A happy new year to all my readers!

Craven New World – or how to ruin the net

Alright. I never expected to write about anything remotely “political” on my blog… It’s about technical things, right? Ok, ok, free software is “political” all by itself. Kind of. But that’s about it.

While at times I’m really sick of what happens on the world, that doesn’t fit well on a blog about computer topics. I admit that I was tempted two or three times to write something about all the blatant and ruthless lies against Russia and things like that. But this is not the right place for those topics. So I resisted. Then came July 1st…

I begun to write a full-sized rant on that day but in the end decided to drop it and re-think things when I got calm again. Since I’m still stunned and angry at the same time, I’ve simply got to write an article now nevertheless.

The one and only

In that morning I read about how Paypal froze ProtonMail’s account. While it is nothing new that Paypal freezes accounts, the rationale was quite interesting. ProtonMail is a provider of email services. What makes them stand out is that they are developing an easy-to-use email system that features end-to-end encryption.

Now it’s a well-known fact that there are powers out there who have no respect at all for your privacy. They want to know where you go, what you download and what you talk about when you mail grandma. You could be a dangerous villain, skilled to pretend the contrary after all – and if they can’t find out what color your underwear is, you might even get away with it!

From that point of view, encryption is… well, irritating to say the least. Which makes it a clear thing that ProtonMail sucks big time. How dare they help people who prefer to keep private things private? So Paypal froze their account, because that company “wasn’t sure whether ProtonMail had approval by the gouvernment” for their business. As a matter of fact, the US have quite a few strange laws. But that’s another thing and it’s perfectly fine if an American company doesn’t wish to assist another American company in doing something unlawful. Except – ProtonMail is not an American company… It’s based in Switzerland!

How can it be that a Swiss company would require US approval for their business? And it’s not even the first time that something like that happens. The USA has blackmailed Switzerland not too long ago. And with their “compliance” ideology they are choking many others, too. This is a very alarming and gross practice. But it is, I cannot repeat it often enough, nothing new.

Just hand it to us!

A while later I read about how Microsoft had just seized more than 20 domains owned by no-ip. This cut off almost two million users from using the no-ip service. And what was the reason for such a draconian action? Was the life of the president at stake? Nope. Was the whole country threatened by some ancient evil perhaps? Not really. It was far worse than that: Microsoft had found a judge which allowed the domain seizure because Microsoft claimed that there were two accounts involved in spreading malware…

This was the moment I had to take a look at the calendar just to make sure that I didn’t mess up things and it was actually April 1st! But no – unfortunately not.

I just want to add that I am not an no-ip user and wasn’t affected personally. But I know people who were – one was even affected enough to finally give Linux more room both for private use and in his company. So while the whole thing is pretty much insane it has its good sides, too. Especially since I expect more people to be really upset after what Microsoft did. Maybe they should rather spend their time fixing their own broken windows than throwing stones at other people’s business?

Oy vey, we want your money!

Ah, what a day. We had some news which were hard to believe if such things weren’t happening over and over again. Then there was some news which left me incredulously shaking my head. What Microsoft did was ludicrous and the fact that some judge ruled in their favor is downright absurd. That cannot possibly be surpassed, can it? Yes. Unfortunately it can.

The last news is just so completely off the scala, that I don’t find any words for it (even in my native language that is). While the Microsoft case makes you question your sanity, the other thing that happened makes you struggle for your faith in mankind. Seriously.

So what happened? Well. More or less this:

Group A (private individuals) who are citizens of
state B (Israel) mandate
organisation C (a jewish law firm) to sue
state D (shiit (!) theocracy Iran) in
state E (the USA) for alleged financial support of
organisation F (sunni (!) Hamas) who are accused of
action G (a terrorist attack) in
territory H (the Gaza stripe) which belongs to
state I (Palestine) as group A claims they have suffered from action G.

Now under normal circumstances you’d laugh at any weirdo who can come up with such an idea – let alone actually carry it out… When you’re finished laughing and wiped the tears out of your eyes, you wish him that he’ll find a good mental doctor.

The story is not over, however. The US court rules in favor of the claimant – and since Iran did what any sane person would do and denies this arrogant impertinence, there’s now the fine (like I said I’m at a loss for words) idea: distrainment of the Iranian TLD (.ir)!!

Come on! Distrain a TLD on the net? Seems like they are really working hard to ruin the net. Congratulations to all those bright people involved.

What’s the world coming to?

In my country (Germany) the phenomena of anti-americanism is on the rise. Many people are in rage because of what the NSA did (and without any doubt continues to do). This is a rather sad thing actually, but in many cases I agree with what people say. The US government is one of the most corrupted an unsound entities of the world. Yet – and that deserves to be emphasized – that doesn’t make all Americans warmongers or liars.

The government in my country is run by criminals as well and so I’m probably not in the best position to complain. After all former chancellor Schröder openly admitted (in one of the biggest newspapers of the country!) that the NATO bombings in Yugoslavia (which he supported) were against international law. By stating so he confessed to be a war criminal – and that had no consequences whatsoever. Funny, isn’t it? And still I’d admit any time that I think of him as a more “honest” person than current chancellor Merkel…

Action!

I’d really like to ask every and all Americans to try hard and reclaim their country. But there’s not too much people who value freedom can do right now. Yet there is one thing we can all do: Start using encryption. Yes, invest that half of an hour to teach your grandmother how to write and read encrypted mail. It’s not that hard.

You are telling me that you have nothing to hide? That’s great! Why? Simple: Same here. It’s great because it is this important little fact that makes us qualify to begin encrypting. Currently it makes you suspect if you use encryption. Well, I can live with that.

I also don’t mind if those who think they absolutely have to know what I mail my grandmother break the encryption. But if they want to, they may well invest quite a bit of effort. If they find it worth the time and resources to learn how much my children have grown since we last visited her, that’s fine for me. If everybody used encryption it would be a normal activity. Let’s aim for that!

So – what about you?

First things first – how I came to Linux (pt. 2)

Welcome back!

Where was I? Right… Windows XP.

Windows XP

When I first saw it, I just thought: “You’ve got to be kidding!” What was this? A blue task bar with a green start button and a terribly colorful background! I still recall what came to my mind next: “Don’t do drugs, man!” Of course, a few seconds later, I had it all set back to classic. Then I attempted to update the system. Guess what? It didn’t work – IE crashed. I tried again, but same thing. Great stuff!

Reboot. What’s this? The desktop is back to ugly! Alright, let’s change it aga… What? It’s still set as “classic”? Wow, if that‘s classic, I don’t know where I’ve been all the years. Let’s set it to “new”. Of course nothing changes. And now back to classic. Ahh, much better. Windows update again? Crash! You know what, buddy? Just go to hell (from where thou must’ve risen)!

Put DOS boot disk in floppy drive, reset. Wait a moment. FDISK.

Yes, that was my first contact with Windows XP. And as you can see, we didn’t really get friends right away… Actually I disliked about everything of this new OS. The exorbitant size when installed, the wasteful usage of RAM, the way it dares to tell me what I wasn’t allowed to do (on my system! Who the heck decides this? Myself – or Micro$oft?), and so on. Not even to talk about forced registration, which is completely unacceptable. M$ got our money and my father used to register every version of Windows with M$ – voluntary. Which is fine. But I was really angry and this was the moment when Redmond begun to lose me, too. I decided to go on with Win2k for as long as possible and then abandon the Windows platform.

Windows 2000 with control panel right after installation: Clean looks.
Freshly installed Windows XP with control panel: Could be called “CandyOS”!

Alternatives?

But where to go then? I had been playing around with FreeDOS and achieved some incredible things (burning CDs in DOS, watching DivX videos on a Pentium 90, browse the net graphically, running Windows applications on DOS, etc.). I liked the system a lot since I knew what every single file on my system was good for and there was not one program or anything there that I didn’t want to have on my drive. But frankly speaking… DOS is not a modern desktop system – especially since drivers are a huge problem and FD-32 seems to go nowhere. It’s very nice for tinkering but not a real alternative.

Meh, Linux…

I had known Linux for a while. That means I had known that it existed. A teacher who tried to get into it himself had founded a “Linux club”. Being interested in computers in general, I had joined it. But while the teacher was trying to get things working, the rest of us typically had Windows running on their machine and played network games or surfed the net. As far as I can remember, we started with SuSE 6.2 back then (SuSE was the most popular distro in Germany at that time). I looked at the system only briefly and found it to be far too complicated. What I disliked most at that time was the case-sensitive file system. I just witnessed it cause trouble all the time.

SuSE favored KDE over GNOME. Being a Windows user at the time I didn’t quite get it how there could be more than one DE and I thought: “If KDE is the standard one, it must be the better one, too.” Fatal thinking! While I liked the bash a lot, I hated KDE. So I decided that Linux wasn’t a choice for my home pc…

At home I had convinced my father that we needed a router pc so that all our pcs could access the internet at the same time. We had another old pc that was just collecting dust anyway but no idea how to set up a machine as a router. Thinking about our club, I proposed Linux. It was allowed to copy it freely after all and I knew that it was perfectly suited for such a task. My father agreed but instead of downloading it for free, he bought SuSE 7.0 Professional. Primarily because of the support option for it as he said.


Our SuSE 7.0 Professional box

It came with kernel 2.2.17, XFree86 4.0, KDE 1.1.2, GNOME 1.2 and StarOffice 5.2!

Thanks to a friend who was a bit into Linux, we managed to get a router up and running. It was painful, though, and took us more than one evening/night of configuration work… But once the server was up, it just worked. And it did so for a very long time. Only after a power outage it refused to boot up again, since the filesystems were reported damaged.

We reorganized our network so that we no longer needed the router pc. I kind of forgot about Linux for quite some time.

Win XP – again

When I bought a new pc, I got a dual-core CPU. Finally I realized that I could not really go on with Win2k anymore. I thought that I had no other option but to install XP. And as I had a legal license for it, anyway, I did. I was never happy with this OS, though and I still consider it a bearable operating system but surely not a decent or even great one.

“Vista”

I heard about this new “Windows Vista” and of course read about it on the net. Now this time I wasn’t angry. “Vista” didn’t even deserve it. It was just plain laughable. Not an OS at all but rather an abomination. This time it was clear that I would never buy it. No sir, I’ve really had it this time! For a while I might stick with XP – but what to do then?

One day when I was really fed up with my Win XP, I decided to give Linux a shot again and see what had happened in the meantime.

Linux!

Everybody was talking about Ubuntu these days. I knew that there were live-CDs and I thought that this was a pretty nice thing that I just had to try out for myself. So I downloaded an Ubuntu image and burned it on a cd. Shortly thereafter the fun started.

It took quite a while to start up, but this was because of the slow cd drive. After it finished loading, I was immediately impressed. Now this was a desktop to my liking! Something way different – but for the better. Very clearly laid out and simple to use. At first I found it strange to have two panels, but I soon liked that, too. I played around with it for a while and for the first time in years, I “felt at home”. It was also great to have Open Office pre-installed just like many other useful programs.

Since I was willing to change anyway, I made a backup of my drives and then installed Ubuntu as a second system. It worked well and I used it more and more often. After finding out how things work and getting replacements for programs I used to work with, I soon booted into Windows just rarely and finally decided to kick it. I also was a bit older now and didn’t consider things like the way the drives are organized “strange” but actually realized that it was superior.

KDE 1 (SuSE 7) – this is what actually prevented me from using Linux in 1999.
GNOME 2 (Ubuntu 8.10) – and this got me back to it!

A lot has happened since then. My beloved GNOME 2.x is dead (save for MATE), Ubuntu has changed for Unity (which I deem unusable on a desktop) and so on. I tried out a lot of distros and desktop environments and learned to live with the big ecosystem that is Linux (GNU/Linux and other software but also the community and the spirit). There’s a mass of things going on – many that I like and some which I don’t like. But this is where you begin to do things your own way, right?

What’s next?

The next entry will have the title: “Eerie’s first ‘e’: ‘elementary’!”.

First things first – how I came to Linux (pt. 1)

This is something personal. Why to read this entry? Well, reading a bit about my experiences with computers will give you an idea of what I’m interested in and which direction things are likely to take. Also you perhaps like a little nostalgic retrospect? If not, skip this.

DOS

My dad bought his first pc way back when these were rather expensive and it was not at all common that a family had one. I was a child who could not yet read or write, but I was immediately hooked by this new machine. I enjoyed the simple games that the 80286 offered and didn’t mind that it was all black and white. The first letter I got to know was actually “y” (a VERY uncommon one in German) – the key I had learned to press when a game asked something like “would you like to try again”?

The first operating system I remember was MS-DOS 5.0 – but it’s basically the memory of the less advanced prompt. I got a little older and computers fascinated me even more and more. Soon we had Windows 3.0 and I was often playing around with Paintbrush (more or less the same thing as nowadays’ Paint).

Windows 3.11 (Ger): Main window with groups, icons and Paintbrush open.

At one point my father sold his 286 and bought a 386. Quite some time later, when the new 486 pcs were released, he bought one, too – but instead of selling the old 80386, he gave it to me. My very first own pc!

Over time I taught myself a lot by watching or asking my father and by trying out things on my own. Soon I was rather familiar with my DOS 6.22 and Win 3.11. After school I usually turned on my pc and played games or did other things with it for hours. Remember Lemmings, Commander Keen, Monkey Island, X-Wing/TIE Fighter, WarCraft and many other classics? Since this is where it all begun for me, I still love DOS and DOS games to this day!

WarCraft: Orcs & Humans – Water Elementals destroy an Orcish base.

Win 9.x

Then we got Windows 95. I remember well that I was very excited and got into this new OS quickly. Being all graphical and mouse-driven, I felt that it already lacked something… It just wasn’t the same thing anymore – a bit of the pc’s “magic” was gone (and would vanish more and more over the years, drowned in overly colorful rubbish). Of course, Win 95 came with quite some useful features and so I liked the system (weren’t we all used to the “blue screen of death” phenomena back then?). Well, and it allowed to boot into pure DOS. So everything was fine for me. Also DirectX and a few other new components made very nice new games possible and I certainly had a great time.

My younger brother got his own pc, too, and finally my father gave in and bought three ethernet cards. I got addicted to play multiplayer matches with friends and finally my parents forbid it since we were occupying my brother’s pc a little too often… I also got into map-making with WarCraft II thanks to the editor that came with it.

In school I became friends with a class mate who had taught himself to code. We had a lot of fun with several smaller projects. I also learned to write small programs in qBASIC and later a little Pascal and Delphi.

Doom95 launcher on the Windows 95 operating system (German).

Next I switched to Win 98 (SE, since I knew the FE was extremely unstable). This was about the time when many of my class mates got their first pc. Even years later, I was shocked how little they knew about computers even though they spent a lot of time with them. They couldn’t write a single batch file and if Windows didn’t start… Well, being left with a command line and no mouse they were about to panic! I’m still very grateful that I learned DOS and didn’t start with a graphical system and Win 9.x or even later!

A bit later I was mapping for Jedi Knight with a program called Jed which I found on a compilation CD. This may actually be the first piece of free software of which I was aware that it was coded by enthusiasts instead of regular companies. I thought that this was a great thing and that more people should publish their programs for everybody to use. Then my father decided that it was time to get an internet connection. Since only his pc could connect to the net, I was not online too often, but it was another very interesting thing, too! Especially since there actually was more free software to try out and enjoy!

Windows ME was released and we got that one, too. Yes, I know how much a lot of people despise it, but at first I kind of liked it. It booted up extremely fast and for the first time it didn’t take us some time to get the network working – Win ME just did that automatically. But hey, what’s that? They removed the option to boot into DOS! Right, there was a way to get it back, but I felt that it made the system even more unstable than it was anyway…

Win2k

Next I got Windows 2000 and honestly, I liked the system a lot. There were a few downsides like it being not really suitable for gaming and of course the missing DOS. Oh yes, and I still can’t understand what the hell M$ was thinking in terms of the console… They added some really nice functions that could be great for batching – and at the same time removed CHOICE.COM! Doing so they mindlessly ripped out the heart of batching! Luckily there was the FreeDOS project on the net which provided a CHOICE replacement that I could freely distribute. Soon I configured my pc as a multi-boot machine with Win2k (working) and 98 (gaming). This was the last time when I was quite happy with my Microsoft powered system.

THEN came… Windows XP.

What’s next?

So much for the rather nostalgic part. The next entry will be the second part of this topic.