[edit 07-02]Added images to make the article a little prettier[/edit]
Last year I decided to take a first look at OmniOSce. It’s a community-driven continuation of the open source operating system that originated at OmniTI. It is also an Illumos distribution and as such a continuation of the former Open Solaris project by Sun that was shut down after Oracle acquired the former company.
In my First post I installed the OS on a VM and showed what the installation procedure was like. Post two took a look at how the man pages are organized, system services with SMF, as well as user management. And eventually post three was about doing network configuration by hand.
One reader mentioned on Reddit that he’d be more interested in an article about an installation on real hardware. I wanted to write that article, too – and here it is.
Scope of this article
While it certainly could be amusing to accompany somebody without any clue on what he’s doing as he tries to find his way around in a completely unfamiliar operating system, there’s no guarantees for that. And actually there’s a pretty big chance of it coming out rather boring. This is why I decided to come up with a goal instead of taking a look at random parts of the operating system.
Last time I wanted to bring up the net, make SSH start and add an unprivileged user to the system so I could connect to the OmniOS box from my FreeBSD workstation. All of that can be done directly from the installer, however and while I went the hard way before, I’m going to use those options this time. My new goal is to take a look at an UEFI installation, the Solaris way of dealing with privileged actions as well as a little package management and system updates. That should be enough for another article!
OmniOSce follows a simple release schedule with two stable releases per year where every fourth release is an LTS one. When I wrote my previous articles, r151022 was the current LTS release and r151026 the newest stable release (which I installed). In the meantime, another stable release has been released (r151028) and the most recent version, r151030, is the new LTS release. Since I want to do an upgrade, I’m going to install r151028 rather than r151030.
To boot or not to boot (UEFI)
My test machine is configured for UEFI with Legacy Modules enabled. Going to the boot menu I see the OmniOSce CD only under “legacy boot”. I choose it, the loader comes up, boots the system and just a little later I’m in the installer. It detects the hard drive and will let me install to it. The default option is to install using the UEFI scheme, so I accept that. After the installation is complete, I reboot – and the system cannot find any bootable drives…
Ok, let’s try the latest version. Perhaps they did some more work on UEFI? They did: This time the CD is listed in the UEFI boot sources, too and a beautiful loader greets me after I selected it. The text and color looks a bit nicer in the EFI mode console, too. I repeat the installation, reboot… And again, the hard drive is not bootable!
This machine does not support “pure” UEFI mode. I switch to legacy mode and try the older CD image again. Installing to GPT has the same effect as before: The system is not bootable. I do not really want to use MBR anymore, but fortunately the OmniOS installer has two more options to work around the quirks of some EFI implementations. Let’s try the first one, GPT+Active. Once again: The system is not bootable… But then there’s GPT+Slot1 – and that finally did the trick! The system boots from hard disk.
At this point I decided to sacrifice another machine for my tests. It doesn’t even recognize the newer r151030 ISO as an UEFI boot source – neither in mixed mode nor in pure UEFI mode. But things are getting even more weird: I install OmniOS for the UEFI scheme again and the system does recognize the drive and is able to boot it – however only in legacy mode!
UEFI is a topic for itself – and actually a pretty strange one. It has meant headaches for me before, so I wouldn’t overrate OmniOS not working with the UEFI on those particular two machines. My primary laptop will try to PXE-boot if a LAN cable is attached – even though PXE-booting is disabled in the EFI. Another machine is completely unable to even detect (!) hard drives partitioned with GPT when running in legacy mode… To me it looks that most EFI implementations have their very own quirks and troubles. Again: Don’t overrate this. The OmniOS community is rather small and it’s completely impossible for them to make things work on all kinds of crappy hardware.
Chances are that it just works on your machine. While I’d like to test more machines, I don’t have the time for this right now. So let’s move on with GPT and Legacy/BIOS boot.
I like Kayak, the installer used by OmniOS. It’s simple and efficient – and it does it’s thing without being over-engineered. Being an alternative OS enthusiast, I’ve seen quite a bunch of installation methods. Some more to my liking, some less. When it comes to this one, I didn’t really have any problems with it and am pretty much satisfied. If I had to give any recommendation, I’d suggest adding a function to generate the “whatis” database (man -w) for the user (and probably make that the default option). I’ve come to expect that the apropos command just works when I try out a new system. And other newcomers might benefit from that, too.
When I installed OmniOS last year, I ran into a problem with the text installer. I reported it and it was fixed really, really quickly. Of course I could not resist the temptation to try out the text installer for this newer release. With r151028 it works well. However it doesn’t offer any options over the new dialog-based one (on the contrary), so I’d recommend to use the new one.
As mentioned above, this time I decided to let the installer do the network setup and create a user for me (which made /home/kraileth my home directory and not /exports/home/kraileth!). When creating a user, I’m given the choice to use either ksh93, bash or csh. The latter is just plain old csh, and while I prefer tcsh over bash anytime, this is not such a tempting choice. But the default (ksh) is actually fine for me.
More interesting however is the installer’s ability to enable privileged access for the new user: I can choose to give it the “Primary Administrator” profile and / or to enable sudo (optionally without password).
Also the installer for r151030 features a few new options like enabling the Extra repository or the Serial Console. Certainly nice to see how this OS evolves!
The installer allowed me to give my user the privilege to use sudo. Just like with *BSD and Linux this gives me the the ability to run commands as root or even become root using sudo -i. But this is not the only way to handle privileged actions. In fact there is a much better one on Solaris systems! It works by using profiles.
What are profiles? They are one of the tools present in Solaris (and Solaris-derived systems) that allow for really fine-grained access control. While traditional Unix access control is primitive to say the least, the same is not true for Solaris.
Let’s see what profiles my user has:
$ profiles Primary Administrator Basic Solaris User All
My guess here is that every user has the profiles “All” and “Basic Solaris User” – while the “Primary Administrator” was added by the installer. The root user has some more (see screenshot).
The profiles of a user are assigned in the file /etc/user_attr and the actual profiles are defined in /etc/security/prof_attr. While all of this is probably not rocket science, it definitely looks complex and pretty powerful. Take a look at the screenshot to get a first impression and do some reading on your own if you’re interested.
As a newbie I didn’t know much about it, yet. The profiles mention help files however, and so I thought it might be worth the effort to go looking for them. Eventually I located them in /usr/lib/help/profiles. There is an HTML help for people like me who are new to the various profiles.
Alright! But how do you make use of the cumulative privileges of your profiles? There are two ways: Running a single privileged command (much like with sudo) or executing a shell with elevated privileges. The first is accomplished using pfexec like this:
$ pfexec cat /root/.bashrc
The system provides wrappers for some popular shells. However not all of the associated shells are installed by default! So on a fresh installation you should only count on the system shells.
Basic package management
In the Solaris world there are two means for package management, known as SVR4 and IPS. The former is the old one used up to Solaris 10. I did a little reading on this and it looks like they are quite similar to the traditional *BSD pkg_tools. Basically it’s a set of programs like pkginfo, pkgadd, pkgrm and so on (where it’s really not so hard to tell from their names what they are used for).
The newer one uses the pkg(5) client command of the Image Packaging System. While the name of the binary suggests a relation with e.g. FreeBSD’s pkg(8), this is absolutely not the case.
Package management is a topic that deserves its own article (that I consider writing at some point). But basic operation is as simple as this:
$ pfexec pkg install tmux
It’s not too hard to anticipate that after a short while, Tmux should be available on your system (provided the command doesn’t error out).
Updating the operating system to a new release is a pretty straight-forward process. It’s recommended (but optional) to create a Boot Environment. The first required step is setting the pkg publisher to a new URI (pointing to a repository containing the data for the new release). Then you update the system (preferably to a new Boot Environment that is made the standard one) and reboot. Yes, that’s all there is to it.
After the reboot you’ll see the new boot menu and better looking system fonts – even without using UEFI. Obviously r151030 implements a new frame buffer. I’ve also noticed that boot and especially shutdown times have decreased notably. Very nice!
If you’ve never worked with a Solaris-like system this article might have provided you with some new insights. However we’ve barely scratched the surface. The profiles are looking like a great means of access control to me, but usually you’d want to use OmniOSce for different reasons. Why? Because it has some really cool features that make it the OS of choice for some people who are doing impressive things.
What are those features? So far we didn’t talk about ZFS and the miracles of this great filesystem/volume manager (I’ve mentioned Boot Environments, but if you don’t know what BEs are you of course also don’t know why you totally want them – but trust me, you do). We didn’t talk about zones (think FreeBSD’s jails, but not quite – or Linux containers, but totally on steroids). Also I didn’t mention the great networking capabilities of the OS, the debugability and things like that.
As you can see, I probably wouldn’t run out of topics to write about, even if I decided to switch gears on my blog entirely to Illumos instead of just touching on them among more BSD and Linux articles. If you don’t want to wait for me to write about it again – why don’t you give it a try yourself?